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MAPUCHE OR ARAUCANIAN        

MAPUCHE OR ARAUCANIAN

Historical Overview

The Mapuche people of southern Chile has a long history dating back as an archaeological culture to 600–500 BC. The Mapuche society had great transformations after Spanish contact in the mid–16th century. These changes included the adoption of Old World crops and animals and the onset of a rich Spanish–Mapuche trade in La Frontera, Chile La Frontera and Valdivia. Despite these contacts Mapuche were never completely subjugated by the Spanish Empire.

The Spanish expansion into Chile was an off-shot of the conquest of Peru. Diego de Almagro amased a large expedition of ca. 500 Spaniards and thousands of yanaconas and arrived to Aconcagua Valley in 1536. From there he sent Gómez de Alvarado in charge of a scouting troop south. Alvarado reached Itata River where he engaged in the Battle of Reynogüelén with local Mapuches. Alvarado then returned north and Diego de Almagro's expedition returned to Peru since they did not found the riches they expected.

In the early battles with the Spaniards Mapuches had little success but with time the Mapuches of Arauco and Tucapel adapted by using horses and massing the large quantities of troops necessary to defeat the Spanish. Mapuches learned from the Spanish to built forts in hills, they also begun digging traps for Spanish horses, use helmets and wooden shields against arquebuses. Mapuche warfare evolved toward guerrilla tactics including the use of ambushes. The killing of Pedro de Valdivia in 1553 marked a rupture with the earlier ritual warfare tradition of the Mapuches. By the late 16th century a handful of Mapuche warlords had emerged near La Frontera as result of the constant Mapuche–Spanish warfare. Mapuche organization changed in response to the war and the aillarehue, a new macro-scale political unit consisting of several rehue, appeared in the late 16th century. This scaling-up of political organization continued until the early 17th century when the butalmapu emerged, each of these units grouped several aillarehues. At a practical level this meant that the Mapuches achieved a "supra-local level of military solidarity" without having state organization

A watershed event happened in 1598. That year a party of warriors from Purén were returning south from a raid against the surroundings of Chillán. In their way back home they ambushed Martín García Óñez de Loyola and his troops that were sleeping without any night watch. It is not clear if they found the Spanish by accident or if they had followed them. The warriors, led by Pelantaro, killed both the governor and all his troops.49

In the years following the Battle of Curalaba a general uprising developed among the Mapuches and Huilliches. The Spanish cities of Angol, La Imperial, Osorno, Santa Cruz de Oñez, Valdivia and Villarrica were either destroyed or abandoned. Only Chillán and Concepción resisted the Mapuche sieges and attacks. With the exception of Chiloé Archipelago all the Chilean territory south of Bío Bío River became free of Spanish rule

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Manufacturers of 15mm Mapuche figures



Lists

Used at Way of the Warriors 2016
GC & 3 TCs
  • 1 Other subject tribe foot War Unarmoured Poor – Light Spear –
  • 2 Skirmishers LF Unarmoured Average Javelins – –
  • 3 Subject tribe skirmishers LF Unarmoured Poor Bow – –
  • 4 Veteran warriors War Unarmoured Superior Musket Impact Foot Swordsmen
  • 4 War Unarmoured Superior – Impact Foot Swordsmen
  • 5 Warriors War Unarmoured Average – Impact Foot Swordsmen
  • 6 Warriors War Unarmoured Average – Impact Foot Swordsmen
  • 7 Warriors War Unarmoured Average Musket Impact Foot Swordsmen
  • 7 War Unarmoured Average – Impact Foot Swordsmen
  • 8 Warriors War Unarmoured Average Musket Impact Foot Swordsmen
  • 9 Warriors War Unarmoured Average Musket Impact Foot Swordsmen
  • 10 Veteran warriors War Unarmoured Superior Musket Impact Foot Swordsmen
  • 10 War Unarmoured Superior – Impact Foot Swordsmen
  • 11 Veteran warriors War Unarmoured Superior Musket Impact Foot Swordsmen
  • 11 War Unarmoured Superior – Impact Foot Swordsmen
  • 12 Veteran warriors War Unarmoured Superior Musket Impact Foot Swordsmen
  • 12 War Unarmoured Superior – Impact Foot Swordsmen


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Created by admin. Last Modification: Wednesday 15 of June, 2016 23:03:11 BST by admin. (Version 2)

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