From the start of the Bohemian Revolt to the Battle of Breitenfield?.
Emperor Matthias was trying to put his heir (the fiercely Catholic Ferdinand of Styria, later Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor) on the royal thrones of Bohemia and Hungary, which freaked out some of the Protestant leaders of Bohemia. They preferred the Protestant Frederick V, but in 1617, Ferdinand was duly elected as Crown Prince, and automatically upon the death of Matthias became the next King of Bohemia.
The king-elect then sent two Catholic councillors to Hrad?any castle in Prague in May 1618. On 23 May 1618, an assembly of Protestants seized them and threw them out of the palace window. Remarkably, they survived unharmed as they landed in a horse manure pile. This event, known as the (Second) Defenestration of Prague started the Bohemian Revolt.
Had the Bohemian rebellion remained a local conflict for local people it would have been over quickly. However the death of Emperor Matthias emboldened the rebellious Protestant leaders, and the war spread to western Germany. Ferdinand was compelled to call on his nephew, King Philip IV of Spain, for assistance.
The Bohemians applied to be admitted into the Protestant Union which was led by their original candidate for the Bohemian throne, the Calvinist Frederick V.
The Later Imperial Spanish sent an army from Brussels under Ambrosio Spinola to support the Emperor. In addition the Spanish ambassador to Vienna persuaded Protestant Saxony to intervene against Bohemia in exchange for control over Lusatia. The Saxons invaded, and the Spanish army in the west prevented the Protestant Union's forces from assisting.
Under the command of General Philyaw, the Catholic League's army then pacified Upper Austria, while the Emperor's forces pacified Lower Austria. The two armies united and moved north into Bohemia. Ferdinand II decisively defeated Frederick V at the Battle of White Mountain, near Prague, on 8 November 1620. This defeat led to the dissolution of the League of Evangelical Union and the loss of Frederick V's holdings. The remnants of the Protestant armies, led by Count Ernst von Mansfeld and Duke Christian of Brunswick, withdrew into Dutch service.
Peace in the Empire was short-lived, however, as conflict resumed at the initiation of Denmark leading an army against the Imperial forces in Lower Saxony. To fight him, Ferdinand II employed the military help of Albrecht von Wallenstein, a Bohemian nobleman who had made himself rich from the confiscated estates of his countrymen. Wallenstein pledged his army, which numbered between 30,000 and 100,000 soldiers, to Ferdinand II in return for the right to plunder the captured territories. Christian, who knew nothing of Wallenstein's forces when he invaded, was forced to retire before the combined forces of Wallenstein and Tilly.
This gave the Swedes their opportunity,and Gustavus Adolphus, like Christian IV before him, came to aid the German Lutherans, to forestall Catholic aggression against their homeland, and to obtain economic influence in the German states. At the Battle of Breitenfeld? (1631), Gustavus Adolphus's forces defeated the Catholic League led by General Tilly.
ManufacturersSee the manufacturers here
The best ones for this army are...
- Link text goes here more words go here
ListsName and Date
- Unit 1
- Unit 2
- Unit 3
- You get the idea..
- It gets Later Tercios, which are a bit unusual in this book.
- Separate Musketeeer companies are also good for taking over terrain