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EARLY OTTOMAN TURKISH        

EARLY OTTOMAN TURKISH

Historical Overview

1494-1595
During this period in the 15th and 16th centuries, the Ottoman Empire entered a long period of conquest and expansion, extending its borders deep into Europe and North Africa. Conquests on land were driven by the discipline and innovation of the Ottoman military; and on the sea, the Ottoman Navy aided this expansion significantly. The navy also contested and protected key seagoing trade routes, in competition with the Italian city states.

The Ottoman military was a complex system of recruiting and fief-holding. The main corps of the Ottoman Army included Janissary, Sipahi, Akinji and Mehteran. The Ottoman army was once among the most advanced fighting forces in the world, being one of the first to use muskets and cannons.

The Ottoman cavalry depended on high speed and mobility rather than heavy armour, using bows and short swords on fast Turkoman and Arabian horses and often applied tactics similar to those of the Mongol Empire, such as pretending to retreat while surrounding the enemy forces inside a crescent-shaped formation and then making the real attack.

The Empire also prospered under loads of committed and effective Sultans. Sultan Selim I (1512–1520) dramatically expanded the Empire's eastern and southern frontiers by defeating Shah Ismail of the Safavid Persian?s, in the Battle of Chaldiran. Selim I established Ottoman rule in Egypt, and created a naval presence on the Red Sea.

Selim's successor, Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566) further expanded upon Selim's conquests. After capturing Belgrade in 1521, Suleiman conquered the southern and central parts of the Hungarian Kingdom. (The western, northern and northeastern parts remained independent).Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies to conquer the Christian strongholds of Belgrade, Rhodes, and most of Hungary before his conquests were checked at the Siege of Vienna in 1529. He annexed most of the Middle East in his conflict with the Safavids and large swathes of North Africa as far west as Algeria. After his victory in the Battle of Mohács in 1526, he established Ottoman rule in the territory of present-day Hungary (except the western part) and other Central European territories. He then did the Siege of Vienna? in 1529, but failed to take the city after the onset of winter forced his retreat. In 1532, he made another attack on Vienna, but was repulsed in the Siege of Güns,

Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeated the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza in 1538.

After further advances by the Ottomans in 1543, the Early Imperial Austrian Habsburg ruler Ferdinand officially recognized Ottoman ascendancy in Hungary in 1547. During the reign of Suleiman the Wallachian, Moldavian and Transylvanian lands intermittently became tributary principalities of the Ottoman Empire. In the east, the Ottomans took Baghdad from the Persians in 1535. By the end of Suleiman's reign, the Empire's population totaled about 15,000,000 people.

Suleiman's expansion into the Central Mediterranean was however halted in Malta in 1565. During a summer-long siege which was later to be known as the Siege of Malta, the Ottoman forces which numbered around 50,000 fought the Knights of StJohn? and the Maltese garrison which in total numbered around 6,000. Stubborn resistance by the Knights and the Maltese as well as infighting between the Turkish leaders led to the lifting of the Siege in September. The Ottomans' defeat in Malta in 1565 was the second and last one experienced by Suleiman the Magnificent, after the Ottoman defeat in Vienna in 1529.

Manufacturers

See the manufacturers here and also see some of the figures in the Ancients Photo Gallery also on this site
Image Image Image Image

Links

Illustrations of Ottoman Soldiers from the reign of Sulieman the Magnificent from the equally magnificent Sites of Interest pages

Lists

Name and Date
800AP used by Paddy at National League 2014
  • 1 Qapu Khalqi Sipahis Cavalry Armoured Superior Bow Sword 4
  • 2 Qapu Khalqi Sipahis Cavalry Armoured Superior Bow Sword 4
  • 3 Qapu Khalqi Sipahis Cavalry Armoured Superior Bow Sword 4
  • 4 Timariot Sipahis Cavalry Unarmoured Average Bow Sword 4
  • 5 Artillery Artillery Average Hvy Art 2
  • 6 Artillery Artillery Average Hvy Art 2
  • 7 Akincis LH Unarmoured Average Bow 4
  • 8 Akincis LH Unarmoured Average Bow 4
  • 9 Akincis LH Unarmoured Average Bow 4
  • 10 Janissaries MF Unarmoured Superior Bow Sword 6
  • 11 Azabs MF Unarmoured Average Bow 6
  • 12 Tatars Cavalry Armoured Superior Bow Sword 4
  • 13 Tatars Cavalry Unarmoured Superior Bow Sword 4
  • 14 Tatars Cavalry Unarmoured Superior Bow Sword 4
  • 3 TCs and an allied TC

another 800ap Natoilnal league list
  • 1 AKINCI LH Unarmoured Average Bow 4
  • 2 AKINCI LH Unarmoured Average Bow 4
  • 3 DELIS LH Unarmoured Superior Lt Lance Sword 4
  • 4 AZABS MF Unarmoured Poor Bow 6
  • 5 JANISSARIES MF Unarmoured Superior Bow Sword 6
  • 6 QAPU KHALKI Cavalry Armoured Elite Bow Sword 4
  • 7 QAPU KHALKI Cavalry Armoured Superior Bow Sword 4
  • 8 TIMARIOT SIPAHI Cavalry Armoured Superior Bow Sword 4
  • 9 TIMARIOT SIPAHI Cavalry Armoured Average Bow Sword 4
  • 10 TIMARIOT SIPAHI Cavalry Armoured Average Bow Sword 4
  • 11 TIMARIOT SIPAHI Cavalry Armoured Average Bow Sword 4
  • 12 ARTILLERY Artillery Average Med Art 2
  • 13 TIMARIOT SIPAHI Cavalry Armoured Average Bow Sword 4
  • 14 TIMARIOT SIPAHI Cavalry Armoured Superior Bow Sword 4


800AP used unsuccessfully at Roll Call 2012

  • 1 Akincis LH Unarmoured Average Bow 4
  • 2 Artillery Artillery Average Med Art 2
  • 3 Timariot Sipahis Cavalry Unarmoured Average Bow Sword 4
  • 4 Azap Bowmen MF Unarmoured Average Bow 6
  • 5 Janissaries MF Unarmoured Superior Bow Sword 6
  • 6 Azap Gunners MF Unarmoured Average Arquebus 6
  • 7 Voynuks HF Armoured Average Hvy W Hvy W 6
  • 8 Janissaries MF Unarmoured Superior Bow Sword 6
  • 9 Horde Mob Unarmoured Poor 10
  • 10 Timariot Sipahis Cavalry Unarmoured Average Bow Sword 4
  • 11 Timariot Sipahis Cavalry Unarmoured Superior Bow Sword 4
  • 12 Balkan Light Horse LH Unarmoured Average Lt Lance Sword 4
  • 13 Qapu Khalqi Sipahi Cavalry Armoured Superior Bow Sword 4
  • 14 Qapu Khalqi Sipahi Cavalry Armoured Superior Bow Sword 4
  • 15 Artillery Artillery Average Med Art 2
  • 16 Artillery Artillery Average Hvy Art 2

800AP used by The Don in the Southern League 2012
  • 6 Janissaries
  • 6 Azap Bow
  • 6 Azap Bow
  • 4 LH Bw/Sw
  • 4 Bw/Sw Unarmoured Average Sipahi
  • 6 Bw/Sw Armoured Bw/Sw Superior Guards
  • 6 Heavily Armoured Elite Bw/Sw Sipahi Guards
  • 4 Wallachian Heavily Armoured Gendarmes
  • 4 Unarmoured Bw/Sw Wallachian cavalry
  • 2 Heavy Guns
  • 2 Heavy Guns
  • 6 Voynuks
  • 4 TCs (including an ally)

900AP list - an updated FoGAM list modified for FoGR - used at Usk 2014, so from the ancient list
  • 4 LH
  • 4 LH
  • 4 xbow azabs
  • 6 bow azabs
  • 8 Janissaries
  • 8 Janissaries Unarmoured bow sword
  • Armoured Average bow sword cavalry
  • The same again
  • Armoured sup bow sword 4-pack cavalry
  • Same again
  • 2 elite cavalry
  • 2 elite cavalry
  • 4 super Serbian gendarmes
  • 2 elite Cavalry
2 gunnes
2 gunnes heavy again

Tactics

  • Overwhelm the enemy with loads of shooty cavalry. Most 800 pt armies usually only have 5-6 units of cav, you have double that here.
  • Taking all 12 Emirs Guard, with 6 Elite and 6 Superior (or 4 + 2x4) is a handy way of getting round the apparently painful Average/Superior Timariot Sipahi restriction


Books






Created by admin. Last Modification: Wednesday 14 of May, 2014 20:13:01 BST by admin. (Version 15)

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