As the Thirty Years' War came to an end, a civil war—the Fronde—erupted in France. The Frondeurs, political heirs of a dissatisfied feudal aristocracy, sought to protect their traditional feudal privileges from an increasingly centralized royal government.
The First Fronde ended when the Peace of Westphalia allowed some French armies to come home. As this first Fronde (Fronde parlementaire, 1648–1649) ended, a second (Fronde des princes, 1650–1653) began, but it was a bit pants and fizzled out.
Philip of Spain took advantage of all this Fronding during the Fronde rebellions of 1648 by continuing a war that had started hundreds of years ago, or so it seemed. The Spanish started a fresh, and ultimately successful offensive against the French in Catalonia in 1651 but true victory over France never emerged, however, and by 1658, after the loss of Dunkirk to an Anglo-French force, Philip was personally desperate for peace. The Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, and the marriage of Philip's daughter Maria Theresa to the young King Louis XIV finally brought his long running European wars to an end.
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